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Literature

Managed Metapopulation Literature

Akcakaya, H.R., Mills, M.G.L. & Doncaster, C.P. 2007. The role of metapopulations in conservation. Key topics in conservation biology.  Macdonald, D.W. and Service, K (Eds).  Pp. 64 - 84. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. click

Andreka, G., Linn, I.J., Perrin, M.R. and Maddock, A.H. 1999. Range use by the wild dogs in the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 29: 1 – 9. click

Davies-Mostert, H.T. In prep. The utility of the metapopulation approach for wild dog (Lycaon pictus) conservation in South Africa. PhD thesis, University of Oxford.

Davies-Mostert, H.T., Mills, M.G.L. and Macdonald, D.W. 2009. A critical assessment of South Africa’s managed metapopulation recovery strategy for African wild dogs and its value as a template for large carnivore conservation elsewhere. In: Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators. Hayward, M. and Somers, M (Eds). Blackwell Publishing.

Davies-Mostert, H.T., Mills, M.G.L. and Macdonald, D.W. Hard boundaries influence carnivore diet and prey selection: a case study of African wild dogs in a fenced reserve in South Africa. Unpublished.

Graf, J.A., Gusset, M., Reid, C., Janse van Rensburg, S., Slotow, R. and Somers, M.J. 2006. Evolutionary ecology meets wildlife management: artificial group augmentation in the re-introduction of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Animal Conservation 9: 398 – 403. click

Gusset, M. 2006. The re-introduction of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) – a multi-disciplinary evaluation. PhD thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. click

Gusset, M., Slotow, R. and Somers, M.J. 2006. Divided we fail: the importance of social integration for the re-introduction of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Journal of Zoology, London 270: 502 – 511. click

Gusset, M., Graf, J.A. and Somers, M.J. 2006. The re-introduction of endangered wild dogs into Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa: an update on the first 25 years. Re-introduction News 25: 31 – 33.

Gusset, M., Maddock, A.H.,Gunther, G.J., Szykman, M., Slotow, R., Walters, M. and Somers, M.J. 2008a. Conflicting human interests over the re-introduction of endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 17: 83 – 101. click

Gusset, M., Ryan, S.J., Hofmeyr, M., Van Dyk, G., Davies-Mostert, H.T., Graf, J.A., Owen, C., Szykman, M., Macdonald, D.W., Monfort, S.L., Wildt, D.E., Maddock, A.H., Mills, M.G.L., Slotow, R. and Somers, M.J. 2008b. Efforts going to the dogs? Evaluating attempts to re-introduce endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 100 – 108. click

Gusset, M., Jakoby, O., Müller, M.S., Somers, M.J., Slotow, R. and Grimm, V. 2009. Dogs on the catwalk: modelling re-introduction and translocation of endangered wild dogs in South Africa. Biological Conservation 142: 2774 – 2781. click

Gusset, M., Stewart, G.B., Bowler, D.E. and Pullin, A.S. In press. Wild dog reintroductions in South Africa: a systematic review and cross-validation of an endangered species recovery programme. Journal for Nature Conservation. click

Hofmeyr, M. 1997. The African wild dogs of Madikwe – a success story! Madikwe Development Series No. 4. North West Parks Board, Rustenburg.

Hofmeyr, M., Bingham, J., Lane, E.P., Ide, A. and Nel, L. 2000. Rabies in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Madikwe Game Reserve, South Africa. Veterinary Rec. 146: 50 – 52. click

Hofmeyr, M., Hofmeyr, D. and Bingham, J. 2004. A second outbreak of rabies in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Madikwe Game Reserve, South Africa, demonstrating the efficacy of vaccination against natural rabies challenge. Animal Conservation 7: 193 – 198. click

Krüger, S.C., Lawes, M.J. and Maddock, A.H. 1999. Diet choice and capture success of wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, South Africa. Journal of Zoology, London 248: 543 – 551. click

Maddock, A. 1995. Wild dogs in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park. Re-introduction News 11: 16  17.

Maddock, A. 1999. Wild dog demography in Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park, South Africa. Conservation Biology 13: 412 – 417. click

Potgieter, K.R. Under review. Pup provisioning and artificial pack formation in African wild dog Lycaon pictus in South Africa. MSc thesis. University of Cape Town. South Africa.

Potgieter, K.R., O’Riain, M.J. and Davies-Mostert, H.T. In prep. Pack formation: an essential management tool for the South African Wild Dog Metapopulation.

Somers, M. and Maddock, A. 1999. Painted dogs of Zululand. African Wildlife 53: 24 – 26.

Somers, M.J., Graf, J.A., Szykman, M., Slotow, R. and Gusset, M. 2008. Dynamics of a small re-introduced population of wild dogs over 25 years: Allee effects and the implications of sociality for endangered species’ recovery. Oecologia 158: 239 – 247.

Van Dyk, G. and Slowtow, R. 2003. The effects of fences and lions on the ecology of African wild dogs reintroduced to Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. African Zoology 38: 79 – 94.

WAG-SA. 2005. Principles and Guidelines for the Management of the South African wild dog metapopulation. Parkview: Wild Dog Advisory Group of South Africa.

Whittington-Jones, B.M., 2011. The dispersal of African Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus from protected areas in
the northern KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. MSc Thesis, Rhodes University.

 

General African Wild Dog Literature

Alexander, K.A., Kat, P.W., Munson, L.A., Kalake, A. and Appel, M.J.G. 1996. Canine distemper-related mortality among wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Chobe National Park, Botswana. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27: 426 – 427.

Boukal, D.S. and Berec, L. 2003. Key Demographic Processes and Population Dynamics of Cooperative Breeders: Lycaon pictus as Case Study. Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares (Abstracts of the Alcalá 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Ecology). click

Breuer, T. 2003. Distribution and conservation of African wild dogs in Cameroon. Canid News 6: 1 – 11. click

Buettner, U.K., Davies-Mostert, H.T., du Toit, J.T. and Mills, M.G.L. 2007. Factors affecting juvenile survival in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of Zoology 272: 10 - 19. click

Buk, K.G. 1994. Conservation status of wild dog in Zambia. Preliminary report, Zambia wild dog project, Zambia.

Bulger, J.B. 1990. Population status of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in northern Botswana: distribution, abundance and conflicts. Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Gaborone, Botswana.

Buitron, D. 1977. Social structure of a captive group of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). MSc thesis, University of Minnesota.

Burrows, R. 1992. Rabies in wild dogs. Nature 359: 277. click

Burrows, R. 1994. Demography, extinction and  intervention in a small population: the case of the Serengeti wild dogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 256: 235 – 245. click

Burrows, R. 1995. Demographic changes and social consequences in wild dogs 1964 – 1992. In: Serengeti II Dynamics, Management and Conservation of an Ecosystem. Sinclair, A.R.E. and Arcese, P (Eds). Pp. 400 – 420. University of Chicago Press. click

Burrows, R., Hofer, H. and East, M. 1995a. Population dynamics, intervention and survival in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B  262: 235 – 245. click

Burrows, R., Hofer, P. and East, M.L.. 1995b. Demography, extinction and intervention in a small population: the case of the Serengeti wild dogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 256: 281 – 292. click

Childes. S.L. 1988. The past history, present status and distribution of the hunting dog Lycaon pictus in Zimbabwe. Biological Conservation 44: 301 – 316. click

Childes, S.L. 1988. Can reintroduction save the wild dog? Zimbabwe Wildlife 51: 27 – 33.

Courchamp, F., Clutton-Brock, T. and Grenfall, B. 1999. Inverse density dependence and the Allee effect. Trends in Evolutionary Ecology 14: 405 – 410. click

Courchamp, F., Clutton-Brock, T. and Grenfall, B. 2000. Multipack dynamics and the Allee effect in the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus. Animal Conservation 3: 277 – 285. click

Courchamp, F. and Macdonald, D.W. 2001. Crucial importance of pack size in the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. Animal Conservation 4: 169 – 174. click

Courchamp, F., Rasmussen, G.S.A. and Macdonald, D.W. 2002. Small pack size imposes a trade-off between hunting and pup guarding in the painted wild dog Lycaon pictus. Behavioural Ecology 13: 20 – 27. click

Creel, S. and Creel, N.M. 1995. Communal hunting and pack size in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Animal Behaviour 50: 1325 – 1339. click

Creel, S. and Creel, N.M. 1996. Limitation of African wild dogs by competition with larger predators. Conservation Biology 10: 526 – 538. click

Creel, S., Creel, N.M. and Monfort, S.L. 1998. Birth order, oestrogens and sex-ratio adaptation in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Animal Reproduction Science 53: 315 – 320. click

Creel, S. and Creel, N. M. 2002. The African Wild Dog: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. Princeton University Press, Princeton. click

Creel, S., Mills, M. G. L. and McNutt, J.W. 2004. Demography and population dynamics of African wild dogs in three critical populations. In: Biology and conservation of wild canids. Macdonald, D.W. and Sillero-Zubiri, C (Eds). Pp 337 – 350. Oxford: Oxford University Press. click

Davies, H.T. 1998. The suitability of Matusadona National Park as a site for wild dog
(Lycaon pictus) reintroduction. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Zimbabwe.

Davies, HT. 2000. The 1999/2000 Kruger National Park wild dog photographic survey. South African National Parks report, 3/2000. South African National Parks, Skukuza.

Davies, H.T. and Du Toit, J.T. 2004. Anthropogenic factors affecting the wild dog Lycaon pictus reintroductions: a case study in Zimbabwe. Oryx 38: 32 – 39.

English, R.A., Stalmans, M., Mills, M.G.L. and van Wyk, A. 1993. Helicopter-assisted boma capture of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus. Koedoe 36: 103 – 106. click

Estes, R.D. and Goddard, J. 1967. Prey selection and hunting behaviour of the African wild dog. Journal of Wildlife Management 31: 52 – 70. click

Fanshawe, J.H., Frame, L.H. and Ginsberg, J.R. 1991. The wild dog – Africa’s vanishing carnivore. Oryx 25: 137 – 146.

Fanshawe, J.H. and Fitzgibbon, C.D. 1993. Factors influencing the hunting success of an African wild dog pack. Animal Behaviour 45: 479 – 490. click

Fanshawe, J.H., Ginsberg, J.R., Sillero-Zubiri, C. and Woodroffe, R. 1997. The status and distribution of remaining wild dog populations. In: The African wild dog: status survey and conservation action plan. Woodroffe, R., Ginsberg, J.R., Macdonald, D.W. and the IUCN/SSC Canis Specialist Group (Eds). Pp 11 – 57. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. click

Frame, L.H., Malcolm, J.R., Frame, G.W. and van Lawick, H. 1979. Social organization of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) on the Serengeti Plains, Tanzania. 1967 – 1978. Z. Tierpsychol. 50: 225 – 249. click

Frame, L.H. 1985. Communal breeding and pup development in African wild dogs. MSc thesis. Utah State University, Logan, Utah.

Fuller, T.K. & Kat, P.W. 1990. Movements, activity, and prey relationships of African
wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) near Aitong, southwestern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 28: 330-350.

Fuller, T.K., Kat, P.W. Bulger, J.B., Maddock, A.H., Ginsberg, J.R., Burrows, R., McNutt, J.W. and Mills, M.G.L. 1992. Population dynamics of African wild dogs. In: Wildlife 2001: populations. McCullough, D.R. and Barrett, R.H. (Eds). Pp 1125 – 1138. Elsevier Applied Science, London.. click

Gascoyne, S.C., Laurenson, M.K., Lelo, S. and Borner, M. 1993. Rabies in African wild dogs Lycaon pictus in the Serengeti region, Tanzania. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 29: 396 – 402. click

Ginsberg, J.R. and Macdonald, D.M. 1990. Foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs: an action plan for the conservation of canids. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland. click

Ginsberg, J.R., Mace, G.M. and Albon, S. 1995. Local extinction in a small and declining population: Serengeti wild dogs. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 262: 221 – 228. click

Ginsberg, J.R., Alexander, K.A., Creel, S., Kat, P.W., McNutt, J.W. and Mills, M.G.L. 1995. Handling and survivorship of African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in five ecosystems. Conservation Biology 9: 665 – 674. click

Girman, D.J., Kat, P.W., Mills, M.G.L., Ginsberg, J.R., Borner, M., Wilson, V., Fanshawe, J.H., Fitzgibbon, C., Lau,L. and Wayne, R.K. 1993. Molecular genetic and morphological analysis of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Journal of Heredity 84: 450 – 459.

Girman, D.J., Mills, M.G.L., Geffen, E. and Wayne, R.K. 1997. A molecular genetic analysis of social structure, dispersal, and interpack relationships of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Behavioural and Sociobiology 40: 187 – 198. click

Gorman, M.L., Mills, M.G.L., Raath, J. and Speakman, J.R. 1998. High hunting costs make African wild dogs vulnerable to kleptoparasitism by hyaenas. Nature 391: 479 – 481. click

Gusset, M., Swarner, M.J., Mponwane, L., Keletile, K. and McNutt, J.W. 2009. Human–wildlife conflict in northern Botswana: livestock predation by endangered African wild dog Lycaon pictus and other carnivores. Oryx 43: 67 – 72.

Gusset, M. 2009. A framework for evaluating reintroduction success in carnivores: lessons from African wild dogs. In: Reintroduction of top-order predators. Hayward, M.W. and Somers, M.J. (Eds). Pp. 307 – 320. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

Gusset, M. 2009. Human–carnivore conflict in southern Africa. Miombo in press.

Gusset, M. 2010. The re-introduction of African wild dogs in South Africa. In: Global re-introduction perspectives: re-introduction case-studies from around the globe, 2nd vol. Soorae, P.S. (Ed). IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group, Abu Dhabi, in press.

Gusset, M. and Macdonald, D.W. In press. Group size effects in cooperatively breeding African wild dogs. Animal Behaviour. click

Hayward, M.W., O'Brien, J., Hofmeyr, M., and Kerley, G.I.H. 2006. Prey preferences of the African wild dog Lycaon pictus (Canidae: Carnivora): ecological requirements for conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 87: 1122 - 1131.
Hines, C.J.H. 1990. Past and present distribution and status of the wild dog Lycaon pictus in Namibia. Madoqua 17: 31 – 36. click

Kamler, J.F., Davies-Mostert, H., Hunter, L. and MacDonald, D.W. 2007. Predation on black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) by African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). African Journal of Ecology 45: 667 – 668. click

Kat, P.W., Alexander, K.A., Smith, J.S. and Munson, L. 1995. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 262: 229 - 223. click

Kemp, L. and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. The 4th Wild Dog and 2nd Cheetah Photographic Census in Kruger National Park. SANParks, unpublished report.

Kock, R., Wambua, J., Mwanzia, J., Fitzjohn, T., Manyibe, T., Kambe, S. and Lergoi, D. 1999. African hunting dogs translocation from Mount Kenya (Timau) to Tsavo West National Park Kenya 1996 – 1998. Unpubliahed report to WWF, Kenya.

Kühme, W.D. 1965. Communal food distribution and division of labour in African hunting dogs. Nature 205: 443 – 444. click

Lindsey, P.A. 2003. The conservation of wild dogs outside of state protected areas in South Africa: ecological, sociological and economic determinants of success. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.

Lindsey, P.A., Du Toit, J.T. and Mills, M.G.L. 2004a. Area and prey requirements of African wild dogs under varying habitat conditions: implications for reintroduction. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34: 77 – 86.

Lindsey, P.A., Du Toit, J.T. and Mills, M.G.L. 2004b. The distribution and population status of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) outside protected areas in South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34: 143 – 151. click

Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R.R., Du Toit, J.T. and Mills M.G.L. 2005a. The cost efficiency of wild dog conservation in South Africa. Conservation Biology 19: 1205 – 1214.

Lindsey, P.A., Alexander, R.R., Du Toit, J.T. and Mills M.G.L. 2005b. The potential contribution of ecotourism to African wild dog Lycaon pictus conservation in South Africa. Biological Conservation 123: 339 – 348. click

Lindsey, P.A., Du Toit, J.T. and Mills, M.G.L. 2005. Attitudes of ranchers towards African wild dogs Lycaon pictus: conservation implications on private land. Biological Conservation 125: 113 – 121.

Maddock, A.H. and Mills, M.G.L. 1993. Population characteristics of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus in the Eastern Transvaal Lowveld, South Africa as revealed through photographic records. Biological Conservation 67: 57 – 62.

Malcolm, J.R. and Sillero-Zubiri, C. 2001. Recent records of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) from Ethiopia. Canid News 4: 2 [online] click

Malcolm, J.R. 1979. Social organisation and rearing in African wild dogs. Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University.

Malcolm, J.R. and Marten, K.M. 1982. Natural selection and the communal rearing of pups in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 10: 1 – 13. click

McCreery, E.K. 1999. The formation of new reproductive units in free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). PhD thesis, University of California, Davies.

McCreery, E.K. 2000. Spatial relationships as an indicator of successful pack formation in free-ranging African wild dogs. Behaviour 137: 579 – 590. click

McNutt, J.W. 1996a. Adoption in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Journal of Zoology 240: 163 – 173. click

McNutt, J.W. 1996b. Sex-biased dispersal in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Animal Behaviour  52: 1067 – 1077. click

Mills, M.G.L. and Gorman, M.L. 1997. Factors affecting the density and distribution of wild dogs in the Kruger National Park. Conservation Biology 11: 1397 – 1406. click

Mills, M.G.L., Ellis, S., Woodroffe, R., Maddock, A., Stander, P., Rasmussen, G., Pole, A., Fletcher, P., Bruford, M., Wildt, D., MacDonald, D. and Seal, U. (eds) 1998. Population and Habitat Viability Assessment for the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in southern Africa. Final workshop report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley. click

Pole, A.J. 1999. The behaviour and ecology of African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus in an environment with reduced competitor density. Ph.D. thesis, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen.

Pole, A., Gordon, I.J., Gorman, M.L. and MacAskill, M. 2004. Prey selection by African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in southern Zimbabwe. Journal of Zoology London 262, 207-215.

Potgieter, K.R., O’Riain, M.J., Davies-Mostert, H.T. and Mills, M.G.L. In prep. Pup provisioning in the cooperatively breeding African wild dog Lycaon pictus.

Rasmussen, G.S.A. 1997. Conservation status of the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in Zimbabwe. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Management, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Rasmussen, G. 1998. Coloured collars for painted dogs. Zimbabwe Wildilfe 10/11: 20.

Rasmussen, G.S.A. 1999. Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: a case study. Biological Conservation 88(1): 133–139. click

Reich, A.1981. The behaviour and ecology of the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus, in the Kruger National Park. Ph.D. thesis, Yale University.

Rhodes, R. and Rhodes, G. 2004. Prey selection and use of man-made barriers by African wild dogs while hunting. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34: 135-142. click

Robbins, R.L. 2000. Vocal communications in free-ranging African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Behaviour 137: 1271 – 1298. click

Scheepers, J.L. and Venzke, K.A.E. 1995. Attempts to reintroduce African wild dogs Lycaon pictus into Etosha National Park, Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 25: 138 – 140. click

Sillero-Zubiri, C. 1995. A survey of African wild dogs in south-eastern Senegal, IUCN/SSC Canid specialist group, Oxford.

Spiering, P.A., Gunther, M.S., Wildt, D.E., Somers, M.J. and Maldonado, J.E. 2009. Sampling error in non-invasive genetic analysis of an endangered social carnivore. Conservation Genetics, doi: 10.1007/s10592-009-9880-6.

Spiering, P.A., Somers, M.J., Maldonado, J.E., Wildt, D.E. and Gunther, M.S. Reproductive sharing and proximate factors mediating cooperative breeding in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology. click

van Heerden, J.M.G. and Kuhn, F. 1985. Reproduction in captive hunting dogs Lycaon pictus. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 15: 80 – 84. click

van Heerden, J.M.G. 1993. Re-introduction of wild dogs into the north-western Transvaal. Unpublished report to De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., South Africa.

van Heerden, J, Mills, M.G.L., van Vuuren, M.J., Kelly, P.J. and Dreyer, M.J. 1995. An investigation into the health status and diseases of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in the Kruger National Park. Journal of South African Vetenary Medicine Association 66: 18 – 27. click

Vial, F., Cleaveland, S., Rasmussen, G. and Haydon, D.T. 2006. Development of vaccination strategies for the management of rabies in African wild dogs. Biological Conservation 131: 180–192. click

Vucetich, J.A. and Creel, S. 1999. Ecological interactions, social organization, and extinction risk in African wild dogs. Conservation Biology 13: 1172 – 1182. click

Wilkinson, I. 1995. The 1994/1995 wild dog photographic survey. South African National Parks report, South African National Parks, Skukuza.

Woodroffe, R., Ginsberg, J.R., Macdonald, D.W. and the IUCN/SSC. 1997. The African wild dog: status survey and conservation action plan. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. click

Woodroffe, R. and Ginsberg, J.R. 1999a. Conserving the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. I. Diagnosing and treating causes of decline. Oryx 33: 132–142.click

Woodroffe, R., Ginsberg, J.R. 1999b. Conserving the African wild dog Lycaon pictus. II. Is there a role for reintroduction? Oryx 33: 143 – 151. click

Woodroffe, R. 2002. African wild dogs and African people: conservation through coexistence. Samburu-Laikipia Wild Dog Project 2002 Annual Report, University of California, Davis. click

Woodroffe, R., McNutt, J.W. and Mills, M.G.L. 2004. African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Canids: foxes, wolves, jackals and dogs: status survey and conservation action plan. Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hoffmann, M. and MacDonald, D.W. (Eds). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Pp. 174 – 183.click