Tswalu reserve encompasses approximately 1000km², of which 200km² is currently fenced to hold predators. The remainder is in the process of being fenced with the intention of restoring the full suite of appropriate wildlife across the entire reserve. Tswalu is unique because it combines the typical Kalahari savannahs, sandy plains and sand dunes with the Korannaberg Mountains in the north and east of the reserve. The vegetation of Tswalu consists of Shrubby Kalahari Dune Bushveld on the plains, Kalahari Mountain Bushveld on the mountains and hills and Kalahari Plains Thorn Bushveld in the north and north-east (Van Rooyen et al., 1999).
In the mid 1990’s Tswalu was established as a conservation area and hunting reserve on land which had previously been utilized for stock farming purposes. Wild Dogs were initially reintroduced to Tswalu in 2004 but the pack soon died out as a result of canine distemper. The founder males of a second reintroduction were killed by lions in September 2006 however supplementation with additional males was carried out in an attempt to stabilize the pack. Over time the pack size has declined to a point where it is thought only two or three Wild Dogs remain at Tswalu.